How do oil filled power transformer work?

20 Mar 2024
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A transformer for power is a transformer used to change the voltage and current levels in a power system. It is mainly used in the power transmission, transformation and distribution process in the power system to realize the transmission and distribution of power. Power transformers usually operate at low frequencies (50/60 Hz).


The working principle of a oil immersed power transformer is similar to that of a general transformer. It is mainly based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. Here's how a power transformer works:


1. Electromagnetic induction: According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, when a changing current passes through a coil, an electromotive force (voltage) will be induced in another adjacent coil. In a power transformer, by changing the input current in the primary winding, a corresponding output voltage can be induced in the secondary winding.


2. Main coil and secondary coil: The power transformer consis

ts of two or more windings, which are called main winding and secondary winding respectively. The primary winding is usually connected to the input source, while the secondary winding is connected to the output load.


3. Transformation ratio: The transformation ratio of a transformer refers to the turns ratio of the main winding and the secondary winding. According to the basic principle of a transformer, the ratio between the output voltage and the input voltage is related to the turns ratio of the windings.


4. Energy transmission: When current flows into the main winding, an output voltage corresponding to the input voltage is induced in the secondary winding through magnetic coupling. This allows the power transformer to carry high voltage over long distances and provide the required low voltage at the appropriate location.


5. Power transmission and efficiency: The power transformer will produce some losses during the energy transmission process, such as resistance loss and hysteresis loss. In order to improve transmission efficiency, the design of power transformers needs to consider suitable materials, winding structures and cooling systems.

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