How do oil filled distribution transformers work?

20 Mar 2024
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Oil filled distribution transformer is an important device in the power system that converts the power from high-voltage transmission lines into low-voltage power suitable for household, commercial and industrial users. It is commonly used in the power distribution networks of substations, cities, and communities to deliver high voltages to the voltage levels required by users. Here's how a distribution transformer works:

The working principle of the distribution transformer:

1. Step-down function: The main job of the distribution transformer is to reduce the high voltage from the transmission line to the low voltage suitable for consumer electricity. In the power system, electrical energy is usually delivered at high voltages to reduce energy loss during transmission. However, high voltages are not suitable for domestic and industrial users, so distribution transformers are needed to reduce the voltage to an appropriate level.


2. Windings and cores: Distribution transformers usually have two windings, one is called the primary winding (input winding) and the other is called the secondary winding (output winding). These two windings are wound around an iron core that helps to enhance magnetic field transfer and improve energy conversion efficiency.


3. Turns ratio: The ratio of turns of a distribution transformer determines the relationship between the input voltage and the output voltage. By adjusting the number ratio, different voltage transformations can be realized. In general, the number of turns in the input winding is more and the number of turns in the output winding is less to achieve the step-down function.


4. Magnetic induction and electromagnetic coupling: When the delivered alternating current passes through the primary winding, the resulting alternating magnetic field will induce an electromotive force in the secondary winding. This electromotive force will cause the current to flow in the secondary windings, which will transfer the electrical energy to the user's load.


5. Insulation and protection: Distribution transformers are usually equipped with insulation materials and protection devices to ensure the normal operation and protection of the transformer. These measures help prevent overloads, short circuits, and other malfunctions.


6. Distribution Networks: Distribution transformers are connected to the distribution networks of cities and communities, delivering electrical energy to a variety of users, including homes, commercial buildings, and industrial facilities.

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