How do power transformer work?

22 Mar 2024
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Power Transformer is an important device used in power systems, used to transfer and transform electrical energy between different voltage levels. It is one of the core components in the power system and is used to transmit electrical energy from substation to substations and then distribute it to industrial, commercial and domestic users.

Working principle of power transformer:

The working principle of power transformer is based on the law of electromagnetic induction and the principle of energy conservation. When alternating current passes through a coil (winding), an alternating magnetic field is generated around the winding. This alternating magnetic field induces an electromotive force in the other winding, causing current to flow in the second winding.

Power transformers usually have two windings, one is the input winding (primary winding) and the other is the output winding (secondary winding). These two windings are wound around a common iron core in order to enhance the magnetic field transfer and energy conversion efficiency.

Depending on the ratio of the number of turns in the winding, the power transformer can achieve the function of stepping up or stepping down. When the number of turns of the input winding is less and the number of turns of the output winding is more, the transformer is called a step-up transformer; Conversely, when the number of turns in the input winding is more and the number of turns in the output winding is less, the transformer is called a step-down transformer. By adjusting the turns ratio, different voltage and current relationships can be achieved between the input and output.

high power transformer
three phase power transformer

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